‘Get out of my way! Book Four is coming soon! I want to get it first! Get out of my way, you fool!’
‘You get out of my way! I want to be the first to read it!’
See below to find out what all the fuss is about …
‘Get out of my way! Book Four is coming soon! I want to get it first! Get out of my way, you fool!’
‘You get out of my way! I want to be the first to read it!’
See below to find out what all the fuss is about …
Why the authors have been so quiet on their blog and Twitter
Well, here we are at the end of 2016! As most of our readers know, we made writing the fourth book to our series a big priority this year and so had little time for other activities. However, we decided to dive into our basket of goodies to see what we could devise for Xmas. And here it is – A medieval crossword puzzle with entry into a prize draw for all readers who solve it!
We shall post as this year’s advent calendar, six clues daily and then four on the last days, until you have them all by December 24th. Then send us a scanned copy of your completed crossword puzzle for entry into the draw. The winner will receive a copy of one of our books, or if you have the current three, then we’ll reserve for you, one of the new release copies of book four ‘The Traitor’s Noose.’
We wish all our readers a very merry Christmas and hope you have some fun with this puzzle!
Lions and Lilies would like to thank Cathy T who manually designed the crossword – that is to say, without using one of those ‘crossword puzzle makers!’
Send a scanned copy of the completed puzzle to email@example.com
Competition closes on January, Friday 13th, 2017 and winner will be drawn on Catherine and Cecile’s birthday – January 17th!
(Please note :- Due to high postal costs in Australia, a print copy will be drawn for Australian Residents only – An EBook copy will be presented via Amazon to an overseas winner)
Good luck everyone!
1 Duke of Normandy (Born 1027 – Died 1087) (7,3,9)
7 Plague (5,5)
14 Famous meadow where a charter was signed by 17 Across
1 Name of the struggle between two houses for the English throne in 1455 – 1487 (3,2,3,5)
2 Castle in England that houses one of the four remaining copies of 99 Across
3 One of the herbs of St John, brought indoors only at the 12 days of Christmas
15 Arch Bishop of Canterbury under Richard II and under Henry IV
17 Youngest son of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine
4 Author of the Canterbury Tales
5 Set of instructions laid down when entering a tournament
6 King of England (1189 – 1199) (7,3,9)
20 Before you could joust you had to be able to do this well 21 King of France 1380 – 1422, suffered bouts of madness
8 One of the royal houses involved in 1 Down
9 Danish King of England (1016) and first Norse ruler to be accepted as a Christian King
10 Usurped Richard II for the English throne. King of England until 1412 (5,2,11)
22 Thomas Becket was murdered in this cathedral
24 Not a she
26 This series of battles was known as The – – – (7,5,3)
11 A dealer in textile fabrics
12 Point on the body where 44 Across was struck by an arrow at 21 Down
13 Vikings who settled in France became known as (6, 8)
27 Italian poet 1265 – 1321
31 A move made in fencing
32 A heraldic charge used by the vikings
18 Nowadays part of Belgium, in the Middle Ages this city was the capital of Flanders
21 Famous English battle in 1066
23 The other royal house involved in 1 Down
33 Wheel indentation in the roads
34 First King of England with this name ascended the English throne in 1272
35 The first born of a king
25 Count of Blois, King of England (1135 – 1154)
28 Son of Charles VII of France, grandson to 21 Across. King of France 1461 – 1483 (name + number)
29 French royal house that reigned from 1328 – 1589 replacing the Capetian line
37 Viking who colonised Greenland
38 Mischievous demon in folklore
42 An impression in a piece of wax
30 16th Earl of Warwick known as ‘The Kingmaker’. His daughters married 90 Down and 82 Across
36 Won the English throne at the Battle of Towton. (name + number)
39 Archers on horseback were known as this type of infantry
44 Last Anglo Saxon King of England (1022 – 1066)
45 Birthplace of 87 Down was Domremy, a small village in the province of ——-
47 Farm animal
40 To decompose
41 Daughter of 36 Down, married 106 Across in order to bring an end to 1 Down
48 What every fighter wants to do
49 A combination of this and strength made a formidable fighter
50 To house 47 Across
43 Not ‘out’
46 Sad song
52 The two sons of 36 Down became known as this when 82 Across took them into custody
51 Ammunition shot from bows (singular)
53 Luxury condiment used on the high table
57 Traditional name of Highland outlaw from Clan McGregor (1671 – 1734)
54 Arable land sown with legumes or grass; pastureland
55 The King known as Longshanks
56 Region of France with Dijon as its capital. Sported many famous Dukes
61 Religious ceremonial act
59 Royal house of England that took the throne from 82 Across – surname of 106 Across
63 This building in Paris has been an arsenal, fortress, a royal residence, prison and museum
62 Used widely in food preparation
63 Most battles were fought in order to possess more of this
64 To sharpen the blades of swords
68 A circular band of metal
73 Lover of Queen Isabella of France, wife to Edward II (first name)
75 Type of bow
65 An early Scottish/English rank between Earl and Freeman who holds lands for the king
66 Archaic form of do
69 Wife of Henry Plantagenet
77 Victor of 96 Down (name and number)
82 A heraldic device
70 118 Across is one of these
71 Archaic form of does
83 Gascon family name who supported 87 Down. It became the name of the political party opposing the English
84 King of France 1137 – 1180 and married Eleanor of Aquitaine (name + number)
85 Surname of one of Henry VIII’s wives
74 Birthplace of brother to the Black Prince. Father to 10 Down
76 English version of French word ‘non’
78 Peasants are usually (and sometimes wrongly) depicted covered in this
86 Nickname of 17 Across because he received no major feoff from his father
87 17-year-old warrior who led the French against the English
80 The handle of a sword
81 Scottish version of ‘John’
82 Brother to 36 Down. Depicted by Shakespeare as a hunchback (Name + number)
89 Royal house to ascend the English throne in 1154
90 Brother to 36 Down – George, Duke of ——– supposedly drowned in a vat of wine
93 King of Scotland 1406 – 1437 (name + number)
83 Two letter word used to indicate proximity
88 Conjunction word used to join words and phrases
89 First name of two of Henry VIII’s wives
94 87 Down was known as ‘The Maid of ——-‘
96 Decisive battle in France in 1415
101 Surname of 73 Down
91 A tot of rum
92 Queen of England for a total of nine days in 1553 (4,4)
95 Alcoholic beverage from molasses
97 Cathedral which houses one of the remaining four copies of 99 Across
107 The main body of a church
98 The metal mounting or trimming of a scabbard
99 Name of the charter signed in 14 Across (5,5)
100 To consume completely
101 Freely split in battle
109 Thrusting weapon
102 A member of the Indo-European people – Irish, Gaelic, Welsh & Breton
103 Alcoholic beverage from grapes
104 Precious stone
105 An arrangement of order especially in battles
110 Beheaded at the Tower of London on May 19, 1536 (surname)
106 Usurper of 82 Across, triumphant at the Battle of Bosworth (name + number)
108 Nowadays displayed in 63 Down
111 An inhabitant of the area south of Guyenne (Acquitaine). Musketeer D’Artagnan was one. (So are the Albrets and Armagnacs in Lions and Lilies)
112 Colour of one of the flowers in 1 Down
115 Scottish pants
117 Skill in dealing with delicate situations
118 Port in Picardy on the French side of the Straits of Dover
119 Welsh boys name and name of grandfather to 106 Across
114 Successful ammunition used at 96 Down
120 You, me, all of —
123 Surname of one of Henry VIII’s wives
124 Scottish dance
125 A law that protects oneself against defamation
116 Wears a kilt
126 Small town in France where the English burned 87 Down at the stake
127 Crowned King of Scotland at Scone in 1306 (6,3,5)
128 Edward II suffered a humiliating defeat here by 127 Across in 1314
121 A Viking drinking vessel
122 Bears the acorn
Lions and Lilies hope you have enjoyed our Christmas Medieval Crossword. We wish all our readers a very Merry Christmas and a safe and prosperous New Year.
We have had requests to repeat our advent calendar from 2013. As both authors are hard at work on book four this year, we gladly comply and will repost it for December.
Lions and Lilies wish all our readers a very merry Christmas and a Happy New Year.
Welcome to Lions and Lilies Advent Calendar – 2015
The Kissing Bush
A Medieval Christmas did not have a Christmas tree. Instead they hung a large bunch of holly on a wooden frame from a slender chain in the hall. It was known as the kissing bush.
In medieval England and Europe an early form of the Nativity scene developed which incorporated an ‘advent image’ or a ‘vessel cup’. It consisted of a box, often with a lid that was covered with a linen square and contained two dolls representing Mary and the baby Jesus. The box was decorated with ribbons and flowers (and sometimes apples) and it was thought to be very unlucky if you had not seen one before Christmas Eve.
The Yule Log
The largest possible log the hearth could hold was cut from a tree and brought into the hall on Christmas Eve and lit. It was to be kept burning for the entire twelve days of Christmas so that its last embers still smoulder on Twelfth Night. A small section of the last piece would be carefully preserved to ignite the new Yule log in the following year.
Deck the Halls
The medieval practice of decking churches and halls with greens for the season had its roots in ancient custom. The early Church had banned the use of evergreens because of their ties with pagan winter festivals, but by the Middle Ages, these plants had been given Christian interpretations and were brought in to brighten and decorate during the shorter dark and cold days of winter.
Letting in the Season
Before the ceremonies of the Christmas feast can begin, the festive joy must be invited into the hall. This is called ‘Letting-In the Season.’ Usually it is a ‘mummer,’ dressed in green and wearing bands of bells. Wassail! He dances his way in, inviting good fortune to fly in with him. He must be dark-haired too (for Judas was thought to have been a red-head!)
The Feast of Saint Nicholas the Bishop
December 6th is the feast of Saint Nicholas the Bishop who is remembered for secretly assisting and providing gifts for the poor. He became associated with Christmas with the idea of the wise men presenting gifts to the baby Jesus.
Before the Christmas food was served a ceremonial light would be lit. A gigantic candle was placed on the high table so that all in the hall could see and admire it. Specially crafted throughout the year and made from multiple layers of coloured wax, one for every month, taking twelve months to complete. The base was surrounded by holly. The candle was lit each night of the twelve day celebration and extinguished on Twelfth Night.
A wide variety of what we might consider unusual fowl appeared on the medieval Christmas menu, such as swans and peacocks. The cook would strive to present the birds in artful ways by decorating the roasted carcass with the bird’s own feathers.
The Yule Boar
Among the preparations for winter is the hunt and one of the favourites was the hunt for the Yuletide boar. Great praise was lavished upon the hunter who managed to snare the beast for the Christmas table, often the centrepiece complete with an apple or orange in its mouth. Carried out on a huge tray, it was delivered to the high table with much pomp and ceremony.
No medieval Christmas was complete without a goblet of warm, spiced mead. Many families had their own recipes, passed from one generation to the next, but all contained the basic ingredient of honey with added variations of fruit and spices, warmed traditionally by having a hot poker plunged into the jug.
A mummer was an amateur actor who performed in village plays at harvest time and special feasts. Often they performed in masks to hide their identity, a pagan tradition in which they were enticing back the sun to end the long winter but if their identity was revealed, the magic would fail. In medieval times, mummers were hired to entertain with religious plays at Yuletide. Using a wagon as a stage, they could move from village to village, performing.
Mince Pies were so called because they contained shredded or minced meat and were baked in oblong shaped pans or casings, to represent Jesus’ crib. The pies were not considered authentic unless the contained three particular spices (cinnamon, cloves and nutmeg) – the three gifts presented to the Christ child by the Magi, the three wise men from the East.
In addition to serving whole birds in plumage, another creative dish was the multi-roast.
Some historians claim that these roasts emerged during the middle ages, while others believe they can be traced back to ancient times. At Christmastide, a twelve-bird roast would have included such birds as a woodcock, partridge, pigeon, pheasant, quail, guinea fowl, mallard, aylesbury duck, chicken, duck, and a goose, all within a swan, one bird for each month. The birds would be carefully boned out and folded, one within the other, the smaller birds side-by-side. One multi-roast could feed up to 130 people. But such creations were not limited to just birds. A medieval recipe book Le Viandier de Tailleven (origins late 13thC, early 14thC) gave us the ‘Helmeted Cock’ in which the capon rides a pig and is outfitted in the coat of arms of the honoured Lord. And in Greenland 400 auks (a type of seabird) were stuffed inside a seal!
From the thirteenth century, the four week period leading up to Christmas was celebrated as Advent. It was also considered to be the start of the church year.
The fourth century saw the introduction of the holidays of All Saints and All Souls, followed on November 11th by the feast of Saint Martin or Martinmas. The next four weeks were then a time of preparation, penance and fasting similar to those of lent.
Yule dolls were gingerbread figures made with honey, nutmeg, saffron, lemon and currants. Eyes and nose are raisins and the smiling mouth is a curl of orange peel. The first piece could be offered to a favourite animal incorporating the ancient custom of giving gifts of food to the animals so they will be healthy for spring. They were served only during the twelve days of Christmas and thought to be best eaten with a tankard of perry!
Wassail (Old English wæs hæl,) is a medieval toast or salute which literally means ‘be you healthy.’ It originates both from the salute ‘Waes Hail’ and the drink of wassail, a hot mulled cider traditionally drunk at Christmas. ‘Wassailing’ was an ancient southern English custom of visiting orchards in cider-producing regions of England, reciting incantations and singing to the trees to promote a good apple harvest for the coming year. Wassailing also has its origins in Yulesinging or Caroling and during the medieval period the wassail was a reciprocal exchange between the feudal lords and their peasants as a form of recipient-initiated charitable giving, to be distinguished from begging, whereby the singers would receive food and drink in return for a blessing, delivered in the form of a song or carol.
Frumenty is a sweet simple dish made of cracked wheat (hence its name which derives from the Latin word frumentum meaning ‘grain’), boiled milk, egg yolks, honey, fruit and spices and was considered a real treat. The mixture was left to cool and eaten with a spoon. One of the oldest documented recipes for frumenty survives in a 1390 manuscript The Forme of Cury written by a master cook from the court of Richard II (Black Prince’s son, 1377-1390). It is one of the oldest cookery manuscripts in the English language. The preamble to the manuscript explains that the The Forme of Cury contains recipes for ‘common pottages and common meats for the household, as they should be made, craftily and wholesomely,’ as well as food designed to impress at royal banquets. Frumenty falls into both categories and there’s a basic recipe for cooking the dish with broth but there’s also frumenty with porpoise, a dish fit for kings!
Christmas puddings in Medieval England may have had the same shape and dark rich colour that we see today, but they certainly would not have tasted very similar. The medieval pudding was made with a spicy kind of porridge, or frumenty. Once the wheat had been boiled, currants and dried fruit were stirred in. The yolks of eggs were also added and, if available, spices such as cinnamon and nutmeg. The mixture was left to cool and set before being served.
In the 14th century, the numbles (or noumbles, nomblys, noubles) was the name given to the heart, liver, entrails etc. of animals, especially of deer – what we now call offal or lights. The word numbles became ‘umble’ and it is often used to refer to the pie of lesser value than the pie with the rich meat. Therefore, the poor would often eat ‘umble’ pie. Nowadays, if you have taken a tumble in life and have to live a standard of life you would not usually be used to, it is said that you are having to eat ‘humble pie.’
Saint Francis of Assisi performed Midnight Mass in Greccio on Christmas Eve 1223 in front of a life-size nativity scene (crib or creche) built by Giovanni Velita, with live animals. This is often credited as the first nativity play. Medieval society loved entertainment and in particular plays. Christmas offered ample opportunity for everyone to become involved in the presentations, which were performed both in open public spaces and within larger private homes, with the Nativity Play being a particular favourite.
Frankincense and Myrrh
Drawn from the tale of Christ’s birth, frankincense and myrrh were prominently displayed in the homes of wealthy people during the Middle Ages. The two precious tree resins were presented to the baby Jesus at his birth and were later often placed in or near nativity scenes. Housed in elaborately carved trunks, the resins were also burnt as incense and thrown into the fireplace to perfume the smoke. Today, frankincense and myrrh are readily available at import stores and are an effective way of lending atmosphere to homes decorated in the medieval style.
We Wish You a Merry Christmas
Carolling, or traveling to different homes to offer or sing Christmas cheer evolved, as we know, from the tradition of ‘Wassailing’. No one is quite sure when the custom started, but it did give us the song, ‘Here We Come-A-Wassailing’ — sung as carollers wished good cheer to their neighbors in the hope of getting a gift in return. The song gradually became the popular ‘We Wish You a Merry Christmas’ — its last verse, ‘Bring us some figgy pudding’ stems from the wassailers’ original intent of requesting food in return for a blessing.
The Shepherds’ Play
The Shepherds’ Play (also known as The Second Shepherds’ Play/pageant) is a famous medieval mystery play. It acts as a prelude to the nativity play where it becomes clear that Christ is coming to Earth to redeem the world from its sins. Although the underlying tone of The Shepherd’s Play is serious, many of the antics that occur among the shepherds are extremely farcical in nature. The biblical portion of the play, a retelling of the Visitation of the Shepherds, comes only after a longer, invented story that mirrors it, in which the shepherds, before visiting the holy baby outside in a manger, must first rescue one of their sheep that has been hidden in a cradle indoors by a comically evil sheep-stealing couple. Once they have discovered and punished the thieves, the storyline switches to the familiar one of the three shepherds being told of the birth of Christ. Although nothing is known about the author, or the origins of the play, it is agreed by several scholars that it dates sometime between 1400-1450.
12 Day of Christmas
The Twelve Days of Christmas are the festive days beginning Christmas Day (25 December) – which was also known as Christmastide and Twelvetide. The Twelfth Day of Christmas is always on Epiphany Eve (5 January), but the Twelfth Night can either precede or follow the Twelfth Day according to which Christian tradition is followed;
Day 1 – 25 December: Christmas Day.
Day 2 – 26 December: St. Stephen’s Day. This day is mentioned in the carol ‘Good King Wenceslas.’
Day 3 – 27 December: Feast of Saint John the Evangelist and Apostle.
Day 4 – 28 December: The Feast of the Holy Innocents, the young male children ordered murdered in Bethlehem by King Herod, according to the Gospel of Matthew. The traditional Christmas song “The Coventry Carol” describes this event.
Day 5 – 29 December: The feast day of Saint Thomas Becket.
Day 6 – 30 December: The feast of the Holy Family.
Day 7 – 31 December: The feast of Saint Sylvester. In Scotland this day is known as Hogmanay.
Day 8 – 1 January: The Solemnity of Mary, Mother of God. Before the Second Vatican Council, it was also observed as the Feast of the Holy Circumcision of Jesus.
Day 9 – 2 January: Octave day of St. Stephen or the feast day of St. Basil the Great and St. Gregory Nazianzen. In England, the Lichfield Martyrs are also celebrated on this day.
Day 10 – 3 January: Feast of Saint Genevieve or the most holy name of Jesus.
Day 11 – 4 January: The octave day of the feast of the Holy Innocents or the feast of St. Elizabeth Ann Seton, the first American saint. In medieval times this was The Feast of Saint Simon Stylites.
Day 12 – 5 January: In the UK this was the Feast of St. Edward the Confessor, King of England. The rest of Europe feasted St. Julian the Hospitaller on this day. The evening of the 5 January is also Twelfth Night.
Lions and Lilies
wish all their readers a very Merry Christmas
A safe and prosperous New Year
Don’t forget our FREE Medieval Xmas book featuring the antics of the characters from Lions and Lilies is available for download
And also from the Apple online Bookstore
In dark, cavernous chambers, enclosed by cold stone walls with hundreds of candles flickering, the ‘quilled’ servants of God laboured for hour upon hour to produce wonderfully decorated illuminations. Undertaking page after page of text, they decorated the borders with enormous capital letters and fancy foliage. But what prompted the monks to design the lewd and outrageous pictures hidden within the greenery? In a society that was guided by its Church, was it not strange to find religious men drawing vulgarity?
Marginalia could be described as the thirteenth century experimentation with the design of the manuscript page, especially in psalters (a compendium of the 150 biblical psalms), which were being made in large numbers for an increasingly literate population. To the visual schemes already found in earlier scripts, illuminators added a new twist.
At the most significant textual divisions, they began to extend the decoration of the large initial letters into the margins, enveloping them in creeping vines to create elaborate borders. Upon these vines sat various creatures, often mimicking the subject of the text. Perhaps this mimicry became mockery. Perhaps years of ink saturating the monks’ skin had an ill effect!
One particular fascination seemed to be the use a snail.
(From the British Library) – There has been much scholarly debate about the significance of these depictions of snail combat. As early as 1850, the magnificently-named bibliophile the Comte de Bastard theorised that a particular marginal image of a snail was intended to represent the Resurrection, since he discovered it in two manuscripts close to miniatures of the Raising of Lazarus.
In another survey of the subject, it was proposed that the snail was a symbol of the Lombards, a group vilified in the early Middle Ages for treasonous behaviour, the sin of usury, and ‘non-chivalrous comportment in general.’ This interpretation accounts for why the snail is so frequently seen antagonising a knight in armour, but does not explain why the knight is often depicted on the losing end of this battle, or why this particular image became so popular in the margins of non-historical texts such as Psalters or Books of Hours.
In La Vie du Prince Noir, (The Life of the Black Prince) written in the later 14th century, the author includes snail-imitation among the frivolous forms of entertainment he condemns (Chandos Herald, La Vie du Prince Noir, ed. Diana B. Tyson [Tübingen: Niemeyer, 1975]):
For how much store men set
And how much more heed they take
Of a jangler or a false liar,
Of a jongleur or a jester
Who would willingly make a face
Or imitate a snail,
At which men can laugh,
As they’ll do without delay
Than of someone who knows how to speak well! (ll. 15-24)
Does this apparently hilarious snail-imitating relate to the combats in the marginalia?
Note – in the above picture, the snail is armed. Quite an achievement when he doesn’t have any! The next two show the snail does not always win.
Other scholars have variously described the ‘knight v snail’ motif as a representation of the struggles of the poor against an oppressive aristocracy, a straightforward statement of the snail’s troublesome reputation as a garden pest, a commentary on social climbers, or even as a saucy symbol of female sexuality. Oh dear, then what do the rabbits mean?
In these the rabbit is quite the warrior and seems to take revenge on man. In others he is making music!
The rabbit is not above warring with the other animals either, even going as far as to hang a hound!
But it wasn’t just rabbits. It was monkeys, dragons, boars, dogs, lions, cats, fish, demons and of course, just as lewd, humans.
Slaying of a dragon; Monkeys um … entertaining; and the hound dressed as a bishop preaching to a flock of geese must surely be a slur.
It would seem in this next depiction that the text referred to astrological ideals or events. Above the marginalia is a picture where the woman is pointing to the celestial skies and below dancing on the foliage, a monkey with a pillar sundial, a fox with the celestial globe, a goat with an astrolabe and a bear and a ram using a sextant – all the tools required for astronomy.
Did some texts have some medical portent? Or perhaps the pictures were simple instructions in the margins for those who could not read? Certainly bodily functions played a part.
It is possible these images could have meant all these things and more at one time or another. I have saved the most bizarre for last. Let’s see what you make of them.
The middle picture depicts a ‘bottom’ playing a bagpipe and the owner’s neck is stretched!
They certainly had a fascination with sticking things into the rear cavity!
Monty Python did not have it wrong!
EXCREMENT/BODILY FUNCTION ALSO FEATURED IN MANY
BENDABLE BODIES, BODY PARTS, HALF-BODIES!
What are they carrying on that stick?
HEADLESS BODIES AND DEVILRY
And perhaps the most bizarre, especially considering the first picture comes from a poem ‘Romance of the Rose’ mentioned in a previous blog
HARVESTING A PENIS TREE AND A WOMAN ON A FLYING PENIS!
Well, there you have it. As to the true meaning of pictures penned more than 600 years ago, perhaps we shall never really know for sure but I do know that if today’s clergy were to sit around in dark rooms drawing such pictures, we would not look upon it so lightly!